So far, I have given four analyses of the doctrine of the Trinity—logical, philosophical, theological, and biblical. I will now give a historical analysis of this doctrine which has for so long been the central understanding of God’s nature in mainstream Christianity and in the more dominant churches. In this post, I wish to present a historical overview of how the doctrine of the Trinity came to be.
In discussing the doctrine of the Trinity, the First Council of Nicea will almost inevitably come up. It was at this council that the deity of Jesus was first officially defined. However, before this council, there was evidently much debate as to whether Jesus was truly God. In particular, this council sought to address what has become known as the Arian controversy, named after Arius. Arius taught that Jesus was not God Himself but was rather the first of God’s creation and was the one through whom God created the world. At the Council of Nicea, Arius and his teachings were officially condemned as heresy.
Before this, there is only one clear mention of the Trinity, and even this was later considered heretical. Tertullian was a second-century convert to Christianity who taught a version of the Trinity, but he believed that the Son was subordinate to the Father, a belief which is typically considered to be outside Christian orthodox today. Besides Tertullian, however, there is no clear definition of the Trinity. In fact, there were numerous other nontrinitarian Christian groups before the Council of Nicea, including the Ebionites and the Sabellians.
Now, if we are to take the epistles and the books of the Bible as historically representing early Christianity, then there is not in these any clear definition of the Trinity (see a previous post of mine here). Although there may be vague references to Jesus as being divine, there is at least no understanding of the Trinity as presented at the Council of Nicea. Jesus also certainly never referred to himself as God.
THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE
Although the Council of Nicea defined that Jesus is God, it did not discuss the Holy Spirit. The deity of the Holy Spirit was defined later at the Council of Constantinople. Thus, the Nicene Creed is sometimes also called the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.
I understand the body of this post was relatively short. However, this brief summary of the history of the development of the Trinity still shows something very significant: the doctrine of the Trinity has not existed since the beginning of Christianity. Now, there may have been an early version of the doctrine, the doctrine of Tertullian. However, it would not be until the Councils of Nicea and Constantinople that the doctrine of the Trinity as it is commonly understood today would be conceived. Of course, those who were in favor of the doctrine of the Trinity at the Council of Nicea must have held the belief that Jesus is God before the council.
With all of that said, it should make those who believe in the doctrine of the Trinity further consider the validity of this doctrine.